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Massage Tutorial: Essential Guide to Massage techniques

Massage Tutorial: Essential Guide to Massage techniques
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Massage is the manipulation of superficial and deeper layers of muscle and connective tissue to enhance the function and promote relaxation and well-being.[1][2] The word comes from the French massage “friction of kneading”, or from Arabic massa meaning “to touch, feel or handle” or from Latin massa meaning “mass, dough”,[3][4] cf. Greek verb µ?ss? (masso) “to handle, touch, to work with the hands, to knead dough”.[5] In distinction the ancient Greek word for massage was anatripsis,[6] and the Latin was frictio.

Massage involves acting on and manipulating the body with pressure – structured, unstructured, stationary, or moving – tension, motion, or vibration, done manually or with mechanical aids. Target tissues may include muscles, tendons, ligaments, skin, joints, or other connective tissue, as well as lymphatic vessels, or organs of the gastrointestinal system. Massage can be applied with the hands, fingers, elbows, knees, forearm, and feet. There are over eighty different recognized massage modalities.[7] The most cited reasons for introducing massage as therapy have been client demand and perceived clinical effectiveness.[8]

In professional settings massage involves the client being treated while lying on a massage table, sitting in a massage chair, or lying on a mat on the floor. The massage subject may be fully or partly unclothed. Parts of the body may be covered with towels or sheets.

Ancient and medieval times

Writings on massage have been found in many ancient civilizations including Rome, Greece, India, Japan, China, Egypt and Mesopotamia. A biblical reference from c.493 BC documents daily massage with olive oil and myrrh as a part of the beauty regimen of the wives of Xerxes (Esther, 2:9-12).[7] Hippocrates wrote in 460 BC that “The physician must be experienced in many things, but assuredly in rubbing”.[9]

The Ancient Chinese book called Huangdi Neijing by the Yellow Emperor recommended “massage of skin and flesh”.[10] The technique of massage abortion, involving the application of pressure to the pregnant abdomen, has been practiced in Southeast Asia for centuries. One of the bas reliefs decorating the temple of Angkor Wat in Cambodia, dated circa 1150, depicts a demon performing such an abortion upon a woman who has been sent to the underworld. This is believed to be the oldest known visual representation of abortion.[11]

In Romania some illnesses were treated by a massage in which the client was trodden on by a tame bear.

Modern times

China: In modern times, massage in China has developed by absorbing western ideas into the traditional framework. It is widely practiced and taught in hospital and medical schools and is an essential part of primary healthcare.[13]

United States: Massage started to become popular in the United States in the middle part of the 19th century[7] and was introduced by two New York physicians based on Per Henrik Ling’s techniques developed in Sweden.[9]

During the 1930s and 1940s massage’s influence decreased as a result of medical advancements of the time, while in the 1970s massage’s influence grew once again with a notable rise among athletes.[7] Massage was used up until the 1960s and 1970s by nurses to help ease patients’ pain and help them sleep.[14]

Because it is illegal to advertise or offer sexual services in much of the United States, such services are sometimes advertised as “asian massage” or under the terms “masseuse or masseur” hence the rise of the term “massage therapy” in an attempt to provide a distinction between sexual and non-sexual services.

United Kingdom: Massage is popular in the United Kingdom today and gaining in popularity. There are many private practitioners working from their own premises as well as those who operate from commercial venues.

Massage in sports, business and organizations: The 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta was the first time that massage was offered as a core medical service.[10] Massage has been employed by businesses and organizations such as the U.S. Department of Justice, Boeing and Reebok.[15] Notable athletes such as Michael Jordan and Lebron James have personal massage therapists that at times even travel with them.

# 3 Massage methods

* 3.1 Acupressure massage
* 3.2 Anma massage
* 3.3 Ayurvedic massage
* 3.4 Balinese massage
* 3.5 Barefoot deep tissue massage
* 3.6 Bowen therapy massage
* 3.7 Breema massage
* 3.8 Champissage massage
* 3.9 Deep tissue massage
* 3.10 Esalen massage
* 3.11 Hilot massage
* 3.12 Lomi Lomi and indigenous massage of Oceania
* 3.13 Medical massage
* 3.14 Meso-American massage
* 3.15 Mobile massage
* 3.16 Myofascial release massage
* 3.17 Myomassology
* 3.18 Postural integration (PI)
* 3.19 Reflexology massage
* 3.20 Shiatsu
* 3.21 Stone massage
* 3.22 Structural integration
* 3.23 Swedish massage
* 3.24 Thai massage
* 3.25 Traditional Chinese massage
* 3.26 Trager approach
* 3.27 Trigger point therapy
* 3.28 Visceral manipulation
* 3.29 Watsu



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